Friday, June 14, 2024

Friday Morning in the Blogosphere


Boone Newsmedia, Carpenter Media Group announce publication ownership changes - AN

Layoffs in public broadcasting: Addressing the triple threat of declining audiences - E&P Magazine

PBS CEO Paula Kerger sends email announcing strategic layoffs for future stability - E&P Magazine

Today in Labor History June 14th, 2024



UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer, was installed at the U.S. Census Bureau. – 1951

In West Virginia, which was under martial law due to ongoing violence between miners and thugs hired by the mining companies, state police and vigilantes raided the Lick Creek tent colony. 47 strikers were arrested. Within a few months, much of Southwestern West Virginia would be engaged in the largest civil uprising in US history, as 10,000-15,000 coal miners battled cops and scabs. – 1921

In San Pedro, California, the Ku Klux Klan attacked members of the Industrial Workers of the World at the IWW’s meeting hall during a benefit for the families of two workers killed in a railroad accident. The KKK beat many of the 300 members. They kidnapped, tarred, and feathered others scalded two children by burning them

Important Events From This day in History June 14


1954 U.S.A. Cold War Civil Defense Drill

1954 : As the continuing Cold War jitters hit America in the Fifties a large scale nationwide civil defense drill is held where the simulation of over 12 million Americans die in a mock nuclear attack. The event stood as a stark reminder that the United States and the world was now living under a nuclear shadow. This in turn did help to get the leaders of the worlds 2 largest nuclear powers to work together to stop the spread of nuclear proliferation and eventually to agree to dismantle many nuclear weapons . At that time many believed that any nuclear war would end in both countries being destroyed with no winner only losers.

1929 U.S.A. Population 120 Million

1929 : The population in the US continues to grow at a rate of 1.4 million a year with current census estimates predicting 120,000,000 next year.

1939 U.S.A.transatlantic commercial service

1939 : A second transatlantic commercial service is planned using the latest in flying boats.

1939 U.S.A. Electricity Prices Decreasing

1939 : As the use of electricity increases the cost has come down an example below:

In 1921 the cost to light a 100 watt lamp for two hours was 1 1/2 cents

In 1939 the cost to light a 100 watt lamp for two hours was 3/4 cent

1940 German Tanks Arrive In Paris

1940 : German tanks rolled into Paris and took control of the city and the German Gestapo went to work with arrests and interrogations as a gigantic swastika flew beneath the Arc de Triomphe.

1942 Holland Anne Frank Diary

1942 : Anne Frank began her diary after she receives it for her 13th birthday, the diary details her life in hiding from the Nazis in hidden rooms in her father Otto Frank's office building and has become one of the world's most widely read books. She died while held in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp of typhus in March 1945.

1943 U.S.A. Salute The Flag

1943 : In the case of West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette, the United States Supreme Court decided that schoolchildren cannot be forced to give a salute to the United States flag.

1954 U.S.A. Pledge of Allegiance

1954 : President Eisenhower signed a bill to add the words "under God" to the United States Pledge of Allegiance.

1961 UK Zebra Crossings

1961 : Following increasing numbers of accidents at uncontrolled zebra crossings a new type of road crossing with push button controls which will allow pedestrians to stop traffic with flashing lights is to be introduced next year.

1967 U.S.A. Mariner 5 Spacecraft

1967 : The Mariner 5 spacecraft raced a heavier Soviet probe toward Venus to penetrate with electronic fingers the planet's mysterious veil of clouds and help scientists see if Venus is a fit place to live, In the end the glory did go the Soviet Probe which did reach Venus 1 day ahead of Mariner 5.

Thursday, June 13, 2024

Thursday Morning in the Blogosphere


A Simple Fix for All Those Stories About Polls - Second Rough Draft

News and politics on TikTok, X, Facebook and Instagram - Pew Research Center

Today in Labor History June 13, 2024


Tony Mazzocchi

A riot erupted at the Miner’s Union Day parade in Butte, Montana. Acting Mayor Frank Curran was pushed out of a second-story window. Frustration and mistrust had been growing for decades. In 1914, miners were being paid $3.50 a day, the same as in 1878, despite the fact that the price of copper had more than doubled in that same time period. – 1914

Tony Mazzocchi was born in Brooklyn, NewYork. An activist and officer in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union, he was a mentor to Karen Silkwood, a founder of the Labor Party and a prime mover behind the 1970 passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. – 1926

Important Events From This day in History June 13


1944 England V1 rockets / Doodlebugs

1944 : Germany launches 10 of its new V1 rockets doodlebugs which were pilot less, jet-propelled planes capable of unleashing a ton of cruise missile explosives against Britain. Over time the Germans increased the number of doodlebugs to nearly 100 per day which fell over London.

1925 USA Gangster Battle

1925 : A running gunfight between Police and Gangsters in Chicago left 3 dead and others injured today , the battles between law enforcement and gangsters in Chicago who are linked to beer running continues on a daily basis with different gangs fighting between themselves for controlling areas of the city.

1927 USA Charles Lindbergh

1927 : Just 3 weeks ago on May 21 Charles Lindbergh in his aircraft completed the epic journey from New York to Paris and became a hero to the American people with his aircraft "The Spirit of St Louis" , in New York today millions of ordinary people came on to the streets to honor their hero in this monster parade which stopped the cities business.

1933 USA Great Depression Home Owners Refinancing Act

1933 : This was one of the worst years of the Great Depression in the 1930s and homeowners got some relief as Congress gave the nod to the Home Owners Refinancing Act as part of the larger NEW DEAL initiative to get America moving again from President Franklin Roosevelt. The act provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing existing mortgages, over the next few years the "Home Owners' Loan Corporation" had refinanced nearly 1 in 5 urban homes in the country. What is often forgotten is most mortgages back then were for much shorter duration often from 10 to 15 years term. ( What the "Home Owners Loan Corporation" did was to offer longer period 20 to 25 years typically which made the payments much lower).

1953 USA Heatwave

1953 : A Heatwave has been affecting many states with unofficial temperatures recorded in Pittsburgh of 112 degrees and an overall temperature across many states of 100 degrees plus, The Heatwave is forecast to end in the next few days with severe storms predicted as the cool air from the Rockies hits the hot air.

1967 Soviet Union 6 Day War

1967 : The Soviet Union has demanded the United Nations Security Council for an immediate vote on a resolution condemning Israel's aggression in the six-day war and demanding the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Arab territories.

1971 USA Pentagon Papers

1971 : The New York Times begins to publish sections of the Pentagon Papers , a top-secret Department of Defense study of America's involvement in the Vietnam War. The papers indicated that the American government had been lying to the people for years about the Vietnam War and the papers damaged the credibility of America's Cold War foreign policy.

1972 Hurricane Agnes

1972 : Hurricane Agnes was the first major storm of the 1972 hurricane season and it quickly raced across the Caribbean toward Cuba. Apalachicola, Florida, took the brunt of Agnes as it hit the coastline and suffered about $10 million in damages.

1986 South Africa Bishop Desmond Tutu

1986 : Following the civil unrest in South Africa Bishop Desmond Tutu , winner of the 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace, meets with South African President P.W. Botha to discuss the nationwide state of emergency declared by Botha.

1991 Russia Boris Yeltsin

1991 : Boris Yeltsin wins first Russian elections for Russia's first popularly-elected president. The vote inflicts a heavy defeat on the ruling Communist Party which has ruled since the revolution in 1917.

2002 USA Colorado Fires

2002 : After nearly 1 week forest fires which began in Pike National Forest on Saturday in Colorado have destroyed nearly 100,000 acres of land are coming under control by the 2,800 firefighters fighting the fires but some homes are still in danger near the main city of Denver.

Wednesday, June 12, 2024

Wednesday Morning in the Blogosphere

 Merly and I visiting the Grand Canyon

Congress fiddles as local news industry burns - America's Newspapers

Today in Labor History June 12, 2024


Fifty thousand members of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen employed in meatpacking plants walked off their jobs; their demands included equalization of wages and conditions throughout US plants. – 1904
Massachusetts became the first state to adopt a minimum wage law. Other states passed similar laws later that year. – 1912
The US Supreme Court invalidated two sections of a Florida law: one required state licensing of paid union business agents, the other required registration with the state of all unions and their officers. – 1945
A Major League Baseball strike began, forcing the cancellation of 713 games. Most observers blamed team owners for the strike; they were trying to recover from a court decision favoring the players in free agency. – 1981
Farmworker, labor leader, and Asian American civil rights activist Philip Vera Cruz died Vera Cruz was one of the founders of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, composed mainly of Filipino workers. Their strike in 1965 against Delano, California grape growers was joined by the mostly Latino union, the National Farm Workers Association. The two groups went on to merge to become the United Farm Workers. Vera Cruz remained an activist for social justice throughout his life. – 1994
This day marks the World Day Against Child Labour, an annual observance established in 2002 by the UN’s International Labour Organization (ILO) to raise awareness about and activism around the issue of child labor, defined as “work performed by children who are under the minimum age legally specified for that kind of work, or work which, because of its detrimental nature or conditions, is considered unacceptable for children and is prohibited.” – 2013

Important Events From This day in History June 12


1994 USA O.J. Simpson

1994 : Nicole Brown Simpson, O.J. Simpson's ex-wife, and her friend Ron Goldman are brutally stabbed to death outside Nicole's home in Brentwood, California. OJ Simpson was later tried for the murders and although the evidence against Simpson was extensive he was found not guilty.

1917 Greece King Constantine I

1917 : King Constantine I of Greece, abdicates his throne in the face of pressure from Britain and France and internal opponents.

1922 USA Ferris Wheel

1922 : An unusual Hurricane and Tornadoes hit the New York Metropolitan Area causing billions of dollars in damage and loss of life. The storm hit suddenly and in Clasons Point a pleasure park near city Island a Ferris wheel with a large number of young riders broke away from it's mountings and crashed to the ground.

1929 Mexico Students

1929 : 2000 Students on strike take over the main building of the Mexican National University. The students held hostages and put a red flag over the building. They demanded the university rector to resign, but he refused. Eventually the students let the hostages go, but they still kept guard over the building.

1935 USA Ella Fitzgerald

1935 : At age 17, Ella Fitzgerald recorded her first songs - "Love and Kisses" and "I'll Chase the Blues Away." They came to be big hits for her.

1942 World War II Coral Sea

1942 : The news of A great Naval Battle between Naval forces from the United States and Japan in the Coral Sea between March 19th and May 9th resulted in the loss of the US aircraft carrier Lexington and 2 other US ships and the loss of 15 ships from the Japanese Navy. The naval battle is considered a major win for the US Navy.

1964 South Africa Nelson Mandela

1964 : The leader of the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, is jailed for life for sabotage.

1965 Vietnam Phan Huy Quat Resigns

1965 : South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat resigns following civil unrest and a military government is put in place headed by Army General Nguyen Van Thieu.

1967 USA Interracial Marriages

1967 : Interracial marriages declared constitutional by the Supreme Court and barred Virginia and by implication other states from making interracial marriage a crime.

1975 India Indira Gandhi

1975 : Indira Gandhi , the prime minister of India, is found guilty of electoral corruption in her successful 1971 campaign. Gandhi refused to give up India's top office and later declared martial law in the country when public demonstrations threatened to topple her administration.

Tuesday, June 11, 2024

Today in Labor History June 11th, 2024


John L. Lewis

Representatives from the AFL, Knights of Labor, populists, railroad brotherhood, and other trade unions held a unity conference in St. Louis but failed to overcome their differences. – 1894

Cops shot black and white IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) members and AFL maritime workers who were striking against United Fruit Company in New Orleans, killing one and wounding two. – 1913
The first 40-hour workweek in the U.S. was won by New York fur workers. – 1926
Labor leader John L. Lewis died on this date.  Born in Cleveland, Iowa in 1880 to Welsh immigrant parents, Lewis went to work as a miner when he was a teenager.  He worked as a mineworkers’ organizer for the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and went on to serve the president of the United Mine Workers of America for 40 years.  A firm believer in industrial unionism, Lewis formed the predecessor organization to what would become the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). – 1969
A labor dispute at the Chrysler Truck Facility erupted into a spontaneous wildcat strike lasting from June 11 through June 14. Two Dodge Truck strikers wrote, “[we wanted] to free ourselves from the tyranny of the workplace; stop being forced to sell our labor to others; stop others from having control over our lives.” – 1974

Important Events From This day in History June 11


1959 USA Naval Dirigible

1959 : A new form of transport which is a cross between an aircraft, a boat and a land vehicle, propelled on a cushion of air created by its own fan power the "Hovercraft", has it's official launch at the Solent on the South Coast of England. The Hovercraft (SRN1) which is still at the experimental level is just 29 ft long, but developers believe the technology will allow the production of full scale Hovercraft capable of speeds 50 knots and up to 300 ft long. The SRN1 Hovercraft was designed by Sir Christopher Cockerell.

1927 USA Rum Runners

1927 : The continued crackdown on Rum Runners has resulted in arrests throughout the country with many of those caught implicating local politicians and local police. During the last week alone over 20,000 cases of liquor have been seized.

1937 Unions Call for Protests

1937 : Union Men from the United Automobile Workers of America wanting to join the Pickets at steel mills in Michigan were turned back today by deputies using tear gas, the Union has now called for mass protests by all members of the Union at Monroe, Michigan.

1944 France D-Day Landings

1944 : Five days after the D-Day landing on June 6th, the five Allied landing groups, made up of some 330,000 troops, converge in Normandy.

1955 France 24 Hours Le Mans

1955 : During the 24 Hours Le Mans race a car looses control and crashes into stands filled with spectators, killing 82 people.

2009 World H1N1 influenza strain

2009 : The World Health Organization declares H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as "swine flu", as a global pandemic. Due to it's highly contagious nature spreading from human to human. Most people infected suffer a mild symptoms, but the small minority who suffer more severe symptoms (less than 0.04% )are hospitalized and end up in an intensive-care unit suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome, which kills in half of all cases. Specific vaccines are developed and released in North America in late October.

1963 Alabama Governor Attempts to Stop Enrollment

1963 : Alabama Governor George Wallace trying to ensure continued segregation is forced to end his blockade of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and allows two African American students to enroll.

1967 Middle East Six Day War Ends

1967 : Israel and Syria agree to observe the UN mediated cease-fire ending six days of Israeli fighting against Egypt, Jordan and Syrian forces.

1979 USA John Wayne

1979 : Film star John Wayne, also known as the "Duke," died of cancer.

1987 USA Earthquake Midwest

1987 : A rare earthquake hit 14 states in the Midwest and parts of Canada stretching down to the South. The quake measured 5.0 on the Richter scale and damaged some highway overpasses, also many thousands lost telephone services. The quake lasted between 3 to 15 seconds at 6:49 PM.

1987 UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher

1987 : Margaret Thatcher celebrates her third general election win after another landslide victory over the Labour Party.

Monday, June 10, 2024

Monday Morning in the Blogosphere


Most NYC high schools don’t have a student newspaper - Chalkbeat

How newspaper giant Mediahuis aims to reach 70% digital revenue by 2030 - Press Gazette

Today in Labor History June 10, 2024


Signing the Equal Pay Act

Unions were legalized in Canada. – 1872
A massive strike by miners occurred in Coeur d’Alenes, Idaho. In order to prevent scabs from working the mines while they were on strike, workers destroyed and seized mines. The strike was broken after the state declared martial law. – 1892
In an effort to break the picket line by striking steelworkers at Newton Steel, a subsidiary of Republic Steel in Monroe, Michigan, a vigilante mob deputized by city leaders attack with tear gas and clubs. Workers and union supporters were gassed, chased and beaten and eight people were injured and hospitalized. An inquiry later revealed that Republic Steel had paid the city for the purchase of the weapons. – 1937
The United States Supreme Court ruled on Anderson et al. v. Mt. Clemens Pottery Company, also known as the “portal-to-portal” case, finding that preliminary work activities, where controlled by the employer and performed entirely for the employer’s benefit, are considered working time under the Fair Labor Standards Act.  In 1947, Congress enacted the Portal-to-Portal Act to amend the FLSA in light of the court’s ruling. – 1946
The Equal Pay Act was signed into law by President John F. Kennedy. The law prohibits employers from paying men and women different wages for the same job. – 1963

Important Events From This day in History June 10


US Naval Dirigible

1921 : The US Naval Dirigible made a forced landing on a San Diego high School Campus after the under work collapsed under the Air Ship and narrowly missed the school flagpole.

1940 Norway Surrenders To Germany

1940 : Two months after starting the invasion of Norway Germany gains full control when Norway surrenders . One other interesting fact is that the word Quisling came from the name of the Norwegian minister of defense Vidkun Quisling.

1940 Italy Declares War on France and Great Britain

1940 : Italy declares war on France and Great Britain.

1947 Sweden SAAB First Car Produced

1947 : Saab a supplier of military aircraft before and during World War II produces their first car in attempt to diversify the model 92 prototype.

1961 USA President Kennedy

1961 : After injuries sustained while on a trip to Canada President Kennedy back injury is improving although he is still using crutches to get around.

1967 Middle East Six Day War Ends

1967 : Israel and Syria agree to observe the UN mediated cease-fire ending six days of Israeli fighting against Egypt, Jordan and Syrian forces.

1977 USA James Earl Ray

1977 : James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., escaped from a maximum security prison in Tennessee, he was recaptured three days later.

1978 USA Affirmed Wins Triple Crown

1978 : Affirmed wins the Belmont Stakes and the Triple Crown, one year after Seattle Slew wins it in 1977.

1980 South Africa Nelson Mandela

1980 : Nelson Mandela the imprisoned leader of the African National Congress (ANC) makes public a statement from a letter written by Nelson Mandela and smuggled out of prison "UNITE! MOBILISE! FIGHT ON! BETWEEN THE ANVIL OF UNITED MASS ACTION AND THE HAMMER OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE WE SHALL CRUSH APARTHEID!"

1986 South Africa Civil Unrest

1986 : The Civil unrest continues in South Africa in Shanty Towns with Young Black protesters attacked by self styled conservative militia armed with guns , clubs and Knives, The Militia are attacking hospitals and schools and burning them to the ground with a number of deaths and casualties reported.

Friday, June 07, 2024

Friday Morning in the Blogosphere


The human future of GenAI - Media Makers Meet

A brutal week for Oregon newspapers with more sales, closures - America's Newspapers

Today in Labor History June 7, 2024


The Colorado state militia was sent to Cripple Creek (again) to suppress a Western Federation of Miners (WFM) strike. A brutal strike occurred in Cripple Creek in 1894, the only time a state militia was called out in support of striking workers. There had been numerous firefights between striking workers and the mine owners’ private security forces, including the use of dynamite. The private cops had been terrorizing union members, their families and even local residents unaffiliated with the mines. The WFM won that strike, but it was short-lived. The mine owners went on the offensive, particularly in 1903-1904, a period known as the Colorado Labor Wars. During this period, private detectives, goons, vigilantes, state militias and national guards were all used by the mine owners to attack the miners. On June 6, 1904, there was an explosion at the Independence mine that killed several nonunion miners. The Citizen’s Alliance brought in the National Guard, who on June 7 shot into the WFM’s union hall. The Citizen’s Alliance also set up kangaroo courts and convicted and deported nearly 240 miners who refused to renounce their union memberships. The Cripple Creek strike officially ended in December 1907. However, the WFM’s struggle in Colorado helped inspire the creation of the even more radical Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905. One of the leaders of the WFM and Cripple Creek struggle, Big Bill Haywood, was also a founding member of the IWW. – 1904

A sole performance of Pageant of the Paterson (NJ) Strike occurred today, created and performed by 1,000 mill workers from the silk industry strike, New York City. – 1913
Striking textile workers battled police in Gastonia, North Carolina. Police Chief O.F. Aderholt was accidentally killed by one of his own officers. Six strike leaders were convicted of “conspiracy to murder” and were sentenced to jail for from 5 to 20 years. – 1929
The Steel Workers Organizing Committee, later to become the United Steelworkers of America, was formed in Pittsburgh. – 1936
This day marked the founding convention of the United Food and Commercial Workers. The merger brought together the Retail Clerks International Union and the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America. – 1979
The United Steelworkers and the Sierra Club announced the formation of a strategic alliance to pursue a joint public policy agenda under the banner of “Good Jobs, A Clean Environment, and A Safer World”. – 2006

Important Events From This day in History June 7


1982 USA Graceland Opened to Public

1982 : Graceland is opened to the public for the first time, almost five years after the death of Elvis Presley.

1954 USA Ford Edsel

1954 : Ford Motor Company formed a styling team to take on the project of designing an entirely new car that would later be named the Edsel.

1977 England Silver Jubilee

1977 : The Queen of England "Queen Elizabeth II" celebrates 25 years as the monarch and more than one million people line the streets of London to watch the Royal Family on their way to St. Paul's at the start of the Queen's Silver Jubilee celebrations.

1923 USA Tucker Bill

1923 : The Wisconsin Assembly is the first state to oppose absolute Prohibition when the Tucker Bill to repeal the state dry enforcement law is passed. Wisconsin had some of the largest breweries in the US in the Twenties and still is a major center for beer today.

1929 Vatican City Lateran Treaty

1929 : Vatican City becomes a sovereign independent State. Vatican City is approx 110 acres with a population of around 800 and is ruled by the Bishop of Rome — the Pope. Vatican City also includes most of the area of St. Peter's Square. The Euro is the official currency of Vatican City with coins issued by the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State featuring the effigy on the current pope on all coins.

1972 USA McGovern

1972 : McGovern, who had swept the Democratic Party spring primaries, was one of the earliest and most vocal opponents of American policy in Vietnam and he made the ending of the Vietnam war one of the central issues of the campaign.

1977 Netherlands Hostages held on Train In Assen

1977 : This is now the 16th day hostages have been held on a train in Assen by terrorists demanding the release of prisoners and a flight out of the country, they are also holding 4 teachers hostage in a local school.

1981 Iraq Israel Bomb Baghdad Nuclear Reactor

1981 : Israeli aircraft bomb and destroy a French-built nuclear plant near Iraq's capital, Baghdad.

1992 Brazil UN Conference on Environment and Pollution

1992 : The United States is causing a storm at the UN Conference on Environment and Pollution as standing alone among the westernized world by refusing to sign the document to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The current Bush administration believes global warming is not a problem that can be proved.

1998 USA James Byrd Jr

1998 : James Byrd Jr, a 49-year-old African-American man accepts a ride from three drunk men Shawn Allen Berry, Lawrence Russel Brewer, and John William King. Instead of taking him home, the three men beat up him behind a convenience store, tie him to their pickup truck with a chain and drag and kill him by dragging him for three miles.

Thursday, June 06, 2024

Thursday Morning in the Blogosphere


Orlando Sentinel among those at Tribune publications to approve union contract - Biz Journal

Company that runs Bulletin, other Northwest newspapers to slash workforce and scale back print - OPB

What will become of The Epoch Times with its chief financial officer accused of money laundering? - KTLA

Today in Labor History June 6, 2024


The US Employment Service was created. – 1933
A general strike by 12,000 auto workers and others in Lansing, Michigan shut down the city for a month in what was to become known as the city’s “Labor Holiday” The strike was precipitated by the arrest of nine workers, including the wife of the auto workers local union president whose arrest left three children in the couple’s home unattended. – 1937
Proposition 13 passed in California, allowing commercial property owners to maintain phenomenally low property tax rates and bleed the state of revenues for education and public services. – 1978
The Labor Party’s founding convention opened in Cleveland, Ohio. – 1996

Important Events From This day in History June 6


1944 Europe Operation Overlord / D-Day

1944 : Dwight D. Eisenhower, commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces in World War II gives the go-ahead for a massive invasion of Europe called Operation Overlord / D-Day by British, Canadian and American forces and a million Allied troops land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France.

1923 USA One Piece Swimming Suits

1923 : Much debate and laws occur when one-piece swimming suits become the fashion for beach-bound women. Various cities ban the new style while others will allow it but only if the new suits are appropriate for swimming and not just for fashion.

1932 USA 1 Cent Federal Tax On Gas

1932 : The first federal gasoline tax (All US States had a gas tax prior to this starting in Oregon in 1919) was created with the enactment of the Revenue Act of 1932 with a tax of 1 cent/gal.

1933 USA Boulder Dam

1933 : The first concrete was poured today on creating the Boulder Dam and is work is expected to last for a further 3 years to create the tallest dam in the world. The base of the Dam will be 660 ft thick and will rise over 700 ft when completed. More about the Boulder Dam.

1933 USA Movie Theater

1933 : The first drive in movie theater is opened in Camden, NJ.

1934 USA Securities Exchange Act

1934 : President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Securities Exchange Act , this was in response to the 1929 stock market crash which was a major factor in the great depression years of the 30's. Up till that point the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) had been operating with little or no government control and the creation of the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) was hoped to restore investor confidence in the market.

1962 Algiers Outbreak Civil Fighting

1962 : Muslim auxiliary police fired on French troops in Algeria. Three Muslims and one French lieutenant were killed as a result. According to police the outbreak began when a group of armed Muslim civilians attacked French troops and French troops opened fire. In response to the incident auxiliary Muslim police came to the scene and also opened fire.

1975 UK Referendum European Economic Community

1975 : The UK has it's first nationwide referendum over the continued membership of the European Economic Community. 2/3 of voters support the government's campaign to stay in the EEC, or Common Market.

1978 USA California Proposition 13 A

1978 : California voters overwhelmingly approve Proposition 13 A "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation,". Following the proposition 13 passage a cap is placed on property tax rates in the state, reducing them by an average of 57%.

1981 India Train Crash

1981 : A major rail accident when more than 500 passengers are killed is caused by an engineer who was reverential of cows causing the train to go over the bridge and sink in the river.

1984 India Golden Temple Compound

1984 : The Indian government sends army troops into the Sikh rebel held Golden Temple compound in Amritsar the holiest shrine of Sikhism where they kill at least 500 Sikh rebels. The army was also ordered to attack Sikh guerrillas besieged in three dozen other temples and religious shrines throughout the state of Punjab.

1999 USA Napster Peer To Peer Sharing Service

1999 : Napster the online music file sharing service starts as the first widely-used peer-to-peer sharing service allowing music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other. The service is shut down by court order in July 2001.